Graduate School of Education - George Mason University
Graduate School of Education - George Mason University

Our Graduate School of Education is the alma mater for one third of teachers and administrators in Northern Virginia’s world-class school systems. Each year, more than 3,000 graduate students enroll in our innovative academic programs, which include advanced study for teachers and school leaders, instructional design and technology, and a renowned PhD in Education program that is among the largest in the country.

School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism - George Mason University

The School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism (SRHT) offers exciting, career-ready majors in dynamic fields such as athletic training, tourism and events management, health and physical education, kinesiology, sport management, and recreation management. SRHT features renowned faculty, cutting-edge research, six laboratories and centers, and a diverse student body of more than 1,000 undergraduate and graduate students each year. Each major requires one or more internship or clinical experiences, ensuring that students graduate not just with a transcript but with a resume that demonstrates their professional aptitude and skills.

Triangulation: multiple forms of overlapping, diverse pieces of evidence and perspectives.

overlapping evidence visual

Triangulation is a key tenant of the anthropological approach to data gathering (and therefore, teacher research). One should gather a wide variety of evidence for the purposes of triangulation (Jacob, 1990; O'Malley & Valdez Pierce, 1996; Wiggins, 1998).

As opposed to relying on one single form of evidence or perspective as the basis for findings, multiple forms of diverse and redundant types of evidence are used to check the validity and reliability of the findings (Jacob, 1990; O'Malley & Valdez Pierce, 1996; Maxwell, 1996; Wiggins, 1998). Over-relying on any one form of evidence may impact validity of the findings.

By using multiple forms of evidence and perspectives, a truer portrait of the student can be developed (Wiggins, 1998). While the same biases in evidence collection still come into play, because more types of evidence are being used to form one's opinion about the student, there are more cross checks on the accuracy of the decision.


Jacob, E. (1990). Alternative Approaches for Studying Naturally Occurring Human Behavior and Thought in Special Education Research. The Journal of Special Education, 24,(2), 195-211.

Maxwell, J. (1996). Using Qualitative Research to Develop Causal Explanations. Harvard University: Harvard Project on Schooling and Children.

O'Malley, J.M. & Valdez Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners: Practical Approaches for Teachers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

See also: